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Arya Kings of Kaliyuga | Arya Kings of Kaliyuga-I | Arya Kings of Kaliyuga-II | Arya Kings of Kaliyuga-III | Arya Kings of Kaliyuga -IV | Arya Kings of Kaliyuga-V | Arya Kings of Kaliyuga-VI | Arya Kings of Kaliyuga-VII | Arya Kings of Kaliyuga-VIII
Arya Kings of Kaliyuga-VII
Arya Kings

Khilji's, Afghans, Mughals, Rajputs and Marathas

Mughal Empire Under Akbar
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Black Area signifies the empire

Empire of Aurangzeb
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Black Area signifies empire of Aurangzeb

We begin with brief introduction of Islamic rule in India. It began after the death of Subuktgin, the Turk, his son Mahmud assumed power in 997 AD. He was to expand his father's kingdom far to the west and east of Ghazni through his military conquest. He was to attack Punjab 17 times during his reign. But was never successful to conquer Delhi due to Arya Kings of Delhi.  The Ghaznavis were uprooted by the Ghauris who extended their rule as far as Dehli. Shahabuddin Ghauri annexed Lahore to his kingdom in 1186. After Ghauri's death his governor Qutbudin Aibak became an independent ruler of Punjab and founded the Mamluk sultenate. Khiljis' replaced the Mamluks in 1290. The rule of Khiljis was briefly disrupted by the two successful raids by the Mongols who marched their way to Delhi twice during Alauddin khilji's rule. Although Alauddin Khilji conquered many parts of India was never able to contain them for more than 2 years. Tughluqs succeeded Khiljis in 1320 AD. Tughluq rule was replaced by the Sayyids in 1414 AD. Lodhis gained control of Delhi in 1479 AD. Mughals gained control in 1526 AD under Baburs command. Soon Babur controlled the entire North India. He died mysteriously in 1530, after his death accept Humayun came to throne but he was overthrown by Afghans and Aryas. Afghans gained control of North, Central and East India while Aryas gained control of West and Central India. Dasuyas were still a mighty power in South India. Akbar son Humayun defeated Hemu in the battle on Panipat and gained the control of Delhi in 1556, there onwards he defeated Afghans and many other tribes. To make Aryas happy he married with Rajput princess Jodha Bai and son from Jodha Bai was named successor after Akbar. Jahangir was the boy. Akbar controlled 60% of India. Jhangir and Shah Jhaan both were normal rulers and they couldnt maintain the empire of Akbar. It was Aurangzeb that once again brought Mughal Empire to peak, he controlled almost 64% of India. Mughal dynasty was over thrown by Marathas after Aurangzeb. Rulers changed but one thing remained there. Atrocities commited by Islamic rulers against Hindus (Aryas and Dasuyas) Several Temples were destroyed, Hindu women were raped, religious institutes were destroyed.
 
Rajput Kings
 
Rana Sanga will be always remembered as a visionary more than a warrior. The way he united the various factions of Rajputs under his able leadership was a tremendous act. After the death of Harsha Vardhan Rajputs all over northern India had broken up into various factions squabbling and quarreling among themselves which became the sole cause of the tremendous successes which Muslim invaders got in India. After hundreds of years there was someone who was uniting the warring Rajput clans under one umbrella.

After bringing in the unity he faced his first challenge when controversy broke out between Rajputs and Gujarat's Mahmud regarding the possession of Malwa. But the real challenge was yet to come. Babur knew that how Delhi Sultanate had all along been troubled by the brave and enigmatic Rajputs. Who were known for their obstinacy. So he decided to rein in them. On the other hand Rajputs under Rana Sanga were getting ready to reestablish Aryan glory. But destiny was choosing some thing as tribe of Gurjars met with Babur night before and told the weakness of Rajput Army.

 As Rana's and Babur's troops faced each other in Kanwaha on the morning of 16th March 1527, death & destruction was on the air. A great and bloody battle followed, at one time Rajputs had surrounded Babur but in the end Betrayal of Dheer Pal came to work for Baburs Army. Rajputs had no answer to the wheeling tactics of the Mughal cavalry. Babur's artillery had won that day for him, it had finally established the Mughal rule over North India and eventually sealed the fate of the Rajput revival. Rana Sanga died in the battlefield itself. Babur said had it not been Dheer Pals betrayal Rajputs would have never lost so execute the traitor of Mother land Dheer Pal right now.

Akbar's first and the hardest campaign were against the Rajputs. Rajputs at that time although were formidable but were very divided. Until subdued they presented a permanent threat to the Mughal hegemony in northern India. The nearest state of Jaipur was first won over, and in 1568-69 the two great fortresses of Chittaur and Ranthambor were captured. Yet Udaipur and Mewar were unrelenting. Although due to his tremendous military skills Akbar had got hold of the major part of Rajputana, yet these two dominions, especially that of Mewar were not ready to accept his supremacy.

Rana Pratap

No history book on India will be complete without his description. He was the grandson of none other than the great Rana Sanga. Although not a great administrator and statesman as his grandfather was but he was a copy of his grandfather in terms of courage and self-respect. Rana Pratap (1540-1597), as he is popularly called in India, was born in the kingdom of Mewar, in modern-day Rajasthan, which was ruled by his father. In 1568, Akbar conquered Chittaur, Mewar's capital. In 1572, Pratap became Rana (king) of Mewar with the support of the elder nobles. He then began a life-long war against Akbar.

At a time when the formidable fort of Chittaur, his ancestral home, was under Mughal occupation and his co-Rajputs such as Raja Man Singh of Jaipur were part of Akbar's council. He stood alone in fighting the Mughal supremacy over Rajputana. He lived a life of a fugitive drawn away from Chittaur by Akbars's onslaught, he cherished a dream of regaining the lost glory of Mewar. Many a times Akbar tried to win him over by his friendly gestures but Maharana was unrelenting, he refused to surrender and even returned Akbar's special emissary Raja Man Singh, of Amber, saying that he is not ready to talk to a person who got his sister married to a foreigner.

Insulted Raja Man Singh, came back with a huge Mughal army of  3,00,000. Later a gruesome and bloody battle followed between Rana Pratap's forces which were only 14,000 in numbers and Mughal forces, who were lead by fellow Rajput rulers who had joined hands with Akbar, in HaldiGhati, the year was 1576. Many soldiers of Mewar were killed or captured but Pratap wasn't. He escaped to the hills in his legendary horse Chetak.

Later on, he organized a small army of Bheels (a tribe of India) and started a Guerrilla war against Akbar. In the later stages of his life he re-conquered all the parts of Mewar but due to failing health and an untimely death his long cherished goal of winning back Chittaur, remained unaccomplished.

 The Marathas

The rise of Shivaji and the Marathas is an important factor in the history of India. Shivaji (1627-1680 A.D.) was the founder of the Maratha kingdom.  He was greatly inspired by the heroes of Hindu mythologies and he considered it his mission to liberate India from Islamic rulers.  At a young age, he conquered the forts of Torna, Raighad, and Purandar. He used the guerrilla tactics to confront even the mightiest of the empires (that of Moghul emperor Aurangzeb) India had known.  He imposed a land tax called Chauth on the kingdoms he conquered and use it to build a powerful Hindu army. Shivaji was a brave and able administrator, and established a government that included such modern concepts as cabinet (Ashtapradhan mandal), foreign affairs (Dabir), and internal intelligence. At his death his empire spread through out Deccan. 

The Period of Unstability - 1680 to 1707

Shivaji was succeeded by his son Sambhaji. He showed the same vigor as his father, but was taken prisoner and executed by the Mughal ruler Aurangzeb, in 1689. Rajaram, Sambhaji's younger brother then took the throne, since Sambhaji's son, Shahu was still a minor. The death of Rajaram in 1700 seemed to end the power of the Marathas, but Tarabai, the elder widow of Rajaram, put her young son Shahu on the throne, at the tender age of ten, and continued the struggle against Aurangzeb who had come to south with the sole purpose of destroying Maratha kingdom. Between 1700 and 1703, Aurangzeb captured the fort of Sinhagad, near Pune. During the siege, his son prince Muhuil-Mulk died; so Aurangzeb changed Pune's name to Muhiabad, in the prince's honor. Shahu continued to fight against the Mughals and captured Rajgad, the former capital of the Maratha territory. The fight against the Mughals ended with the death of Aurangzeb in 1707 which was another turning point in Maratha history. After Aurangzeb, Mughal power never regained its status as main power in India and Balance of power shifted towards Marathas, which was soon to be controlled by Peshwas.  At its peak Maratha empire controlled 61% of India. 

Balaji Vishwanath, Pahila Bajirav, Nanasaheb Peshwa, Thorale Madhavrav, Naravanrav Peshwa, Sawai Madharav Peshwa and Bajirav Peshwa-II were the Aryas of Peshwa tribe that brought Arya Glory back to its zenith.

Maratha Empire at the times of Peshwas
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Amon red lines lies the Maratha Empire